Earlier camera used were made by opticians, instrument makers and by photographers themselves. Most of them had a sliding box design where the lens was placed in the front box and a smaller box slid behind the larger box. By sliding the rear box forward and backwards the focus was controlled by the photographer. Laterally reverse image was obtained. After the sensitized plate was placed the lens cap was removed to start the exposure.
After the invention of roll films, everyone started using it and during that time George Eastman invented the box-shaped camera that was simple to use for the consumers. The photographer mailed the camera containing film to Kodak factory, where the film was removed from the camera and then processed and printed. The camera was then reloaded with a new film and mailed back to its owner.
The single-lens reflex camera was introduced within this age of cameras.
With the development of the first charged-couple device (CCD) in 1969 at Bell Labs, the era of digital photography started. Engineers at Kodak developed the first camera that created a digital image in 1975 which used cassette recorder for storing data and took 20+ seconds to capture a photo.
In mid-1980s companies started working on digital cameras. One of the first prototypes was demonstrated by Canon but it was never manufactured and sold commercially. In 1990 the first digital camera was sold in the U.S named Dycam Model 1 and was sold for $600. The first digital SLR was made by Kodak. By 2004, digital cameras were used every area of photography and are growing until today.
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