The size of the opening of a lens is called Aperture. It controls how much light should enter the lens. It is measured in ‘f-stops’ and is adjusted by changing ‘f-number’.
Large aperture means small f-number (f/2) and allows more light to come in the lens.
A small aperture means large f-number (f/16) and allows less light to come in.
The depth of field is controlled by aperture. Large aperture helps in creating a shallow depth of field whereas small aperture helps in creating a large depth of field.
Look at below images to understand more easily.
The time for which the camera shutter remains open while taking a picture is called shutter speed. It is measured in seconds and is written in fraction form i.e. 1/4s, 1/6s, 1/30s, 1/60s, 1/500s, etc. Amount of exposure in a picture depends upon for how long the shutter is open. If shutter remains open for a large time, more light will pass through the image sensor and vice versa.
To freeze the motion of a moving object one should click a picture with fast shutter speed. Fast shutter speed can be used in a sports event or in wildlife photography.
To show motion in picture one should click pictures at the slow shutter speed, it is useful in capturing light trails, the motion of waves. Always use a tripod while shooting at slow shutter speed.
Camera sensitivity to light is measured in ISO. The amount of light which is necessary for the image sensor to get to a certain exposure is controlled by ISO sensitivity. It is indicated in the numeric form. ISO 100 is equal to low sensitivity and ISO 6400 is equal to high sensitivity. While shooting in dark one should use high ISO which allows sensor to capture an image in low light without using flash. But higher ISO adds noise to the picture so it is better to click the picture at low ISO while shooting outside on a sunny day. High ISO can overexpose the image in a bright environment.
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